The Moorish Conquest Of Europe #History

The 19th century the relationship between Europe and Africa was the exact opposite of what it was only centuries before. From Robert Briffault, we learn:

“From the 5th to the 10th century, Europe lay sunk in a night of barbarism … more terrible and horrible than that of the primitive savage. ”

What came from Africa, however, would change the face of Europe forever. We are told: “The stormy increase in Western Islam, a peak that almost conquered the whole of Europe and that in peace Renaissance laid the foundation for the, was largely a Berber feat.” Who were the Berbers? Most textbooks claim they were and are “white” people.

“. Qibt (Kopten), Kush (Sudanese), … and Zanj (Swahili):” In a medieval Arab genealogy, however, we find the “Berbers” (Africa North) grouped along the same writer added: “This are the nations of the blacks. “in 710 AD, Tarif, a Berber general leadership 500 men in Spain, after the Arab invasion of North Africa and the conversion of Berbers to Islam.

In Spain, they landed in a port renamed Tarifa in honor of their leader (later a tax would be levied from this port called a “rate”). The following year, 711, Tarik, another Berber general, led a second and more decisive invasion. His 12,000 soldiers made their base on what they called Gebel

al-Tank meaning “Rock of Tank”, which later ”

Few people today know that these names are derived from those of Africans. General Tank proceeded to conquer Spain, then under King Roderick, the leader of the Germanic (Gothic) people who ruled that country. Van de Moren himself, a modern European chronicler wrote:

“The reins of their horses were like fire, their faces black like pitch, their eyes sparkled like the burning candles, their horses were fast like leopards and horsemen fiercer than a wolf in the sheepfold in the night … The noble Goths were broken in an hour faster than tongue can tell. Oh, unfortunate Spain! ”

The Moorish conquest, however, was overshadowed by the arrival of the Arab ruler from Africa, Musa ibn Nusair. Making Tarik bow to him, Musa placed his foot on his back. This humiliating act set the tone for the Arab.

Berber relations for 50 years and led to many Berber settlers fleeing Spain. From 715 to 1031, the Syrian controlled Umayyad dynasty ruled Spain. Although the Arabs came to power over time, the present vast numbers of Berbers increased African influence, aided by the proximity to the continent.

As Berber took power in the army and government, disagreement arose between the Arabs and Africans. Meanwhile, in the 11th century Africa Yahia, leader of the Lamtuna Berbers, deposed in front of the Kingdom of Takrur in Senegal.

Although there, he found other Muslims and together they started a movement known as the Almoravids. Becoming masters of Western Sahara, they attacked the empire of Ghana in 1076 and conquered Morocco in 1082.

In Spain, the ancient Moors were on the verge of losing everything, when in 1086 the Almoravids swept in. Although some Moors fought with the Spaniards against the Almoravids, the conquerors ruled from both Marrakech in Morocco and Seville in Spain. the Almoravids. They are thought to have introduced the trend of minting gold coins in Europe.

Pelayo

(After his victory, Pelayo was elected king of Spain.)

Robin Walker, a writer on African history, describes the invaders as “a mix of Senegalese and Berber people of different skin types.”

How the Berbers came to be of “different complexion” when they started “black as pitch” also explains why Arabs and Berbers had fallen apart in Spain and possibly why some Moors fought with the Spaniards against the new Africans on the block.

The Arabs are conquerors, were of a different rank order than the black and Berber’s mix in North and West Africa. Being able to get more women, both Arab and Berber, Arab patriarchy meant that their many children were considered to originate from their father’s ethnic group, regardless of the mother.

The Arab population grew faster than the Berber population. Over the centuries, the various tribes of North Africa became multi-colored. As some Berbers took Arab and Spanish women, their children were classified as Berbers, and they too became multi-colored.

Although it is not usually a problem, there was an unmistakable color late in Arab society.

Moulay Ismail Ibn Sharif

This man (pictured) was Moulay Ismail Ibn Sharif, a direct ancestor of the current King Mohammed VI of Morocco. (In 1672, Moulay had succeeded Ismail as ruler after his brother Moulay al-Rashid had fallen from his horse and ran out of his brain. At the time he took the throne, 26-year-old Moulay Ismail became the governor of Meknes in northern the country .)

This caused Berber to fight Arab and Berber to fight among themselves. The longer Africans stayed in Spain the more likely this problem occurred, and this shows why they angrily grabbed new Africans in the fight.

The tight Islam of the early Almoravids gave way to religious laxity. In Morocco, however, a new and strict mystical movement spread over the Black Massufa Berbers. Led by Ibn Al-Mahdi Tumat, they seized Morocco in 1147 and Spain in 1150.

There was an Action Replay of even more battles between old and new Moors. To the Spanish, the people of Al-Mahdi were named Almohades.

The Black Panther “MOROCCO

(The Prince Thami Glaoui (1893-1956), Pasha or Marrakeech, and Lord of the Atlas, is head of a Berber clan, that has been a power in Morocco for more than a thousand years.)

This dynasty ruled from the river the Senegal to Spain, and has been described as “the most beautiful flower of Muslim civiization.” In Spain, they built the Castile of Gibraltar, the Great Mosque of Seville and the Giralda of Seville, the famous astronomical observatory.

However, all this tumbllng came down. The old disunitions crept in. The Moors lost from city to city with a number of battles on the part of Spanish Christians, but with no fresh invasions from new Africans to supplement them.

In 1248, they lost Sevilla, which ended Almohade in Spain. The Moors only place on to Granada in the south. In 1492 they lost this so well, an era in word history ends.

Illustration of Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget (circa 1375 Catalan Atlas)

Black African Moors or The Great Senegal Empire

The old Ghana empire in West Africa (ca. 700 – 1000)

In the 10th century, the Arab geographer Ibn Hawqal mentioned the city of Awdoghast (Aoudaghost), located in the Sahara north-west of Kumbi Saleh. In the eleventh century al-Bakri of Córdoba, a Spanish-Arab geographer, compiled his “Book of Roads and Kingdoms”, a kind of travel guide for Africa. In it he described this same city as “a large city with various markets, many date palms and henna trees, as large as olive trees … full of beautiful houses and solid buildings.”

Kumbi Sale

The northern part of the empire was lost to the Muslim Berbers, who called themselves Almoravids (Moors) and had originally founded the Ghanaian Empire. Initially, the Ghanaian government recovered from this.

Aoudaghost(also known as Awadaghust, Awdughast, Awdaghusht and Awdhaghurst) was an important oasis town at the southern end of a trans-Sahara caravan route that is mentioned in a number of early Arab manuscripts. The archaeological excavations at Tegdaoust in southern Mauritania are thought to be the remains of the medieval Aoudaghost.

“Zenaga / Sanhaja tribe: Berber tribe in southern Morocco, Mauritania and Senegal, which gave their name to modern Senegal, their original homeland. They formed one of the sub-Saharan tribes of Berbers, who unite under the leadership of Yusef bin Tashfin, crossed the Sahara and gave a dynasty in Morocco and Spain, namely that of the Almoravids, and the Zeirid dynasty that suppressed the Fatimites in the Maghreb, the city of Algiers was also of Zenaga origin.

Zenaga: Berber dialect spoken in southern Morocco and on the banks of the lower Senegal, especially by the Negro population. ”

Http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/YAK_ZYM/ZENAGA_SANHAJA_SENAJER_.html

King of the Ashantis

After the fall of the empire migrated some of the Akan peoples, such as the Ashanti and the Fante to the south, where they founded several states, and most of the area was to be united in the 16th century under the Ashanti confederation, initially a los states union, but later it became a centralized state.The city of Kumasi became the capital of the Ashanti Empire

African Moorish: The Sanhajalese Empire – by Jide Uwechia

Sanhaja is the name of a group of Africans who live on the edge of the Sahara today Senegal. They are one of the so-called black people or sub-Saharans or tropical Africans. Historically they are one of the Berber tribes that formed the outlines of the Moorish conquest and civilization of Europe.

Reference is made to their phenotype so that it is immediately clear that we will once again visit the great history of an unambiguously so-called black people in West Africa. It will be shown here that the place known as West Africa today is indeed the ancient heart of the Moorish Empire that in itself from there to Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt to Spain, Italy, Palestine, even the Far East as India and Indonesia, where Moorish descendants still identify themselves by the Moorish designation.

The Sanhaja group has many branches, scattered between the Senegal and Niger rivers in West Africa, and the north of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco in the south and central regions. Nonetheless, the Sanhajas were concentrated in the areas where the pseudo-intellectuals of the western media and academia describe as “sub-Saharan region” of Africa.

The Zenega branch of the Sanhajas are among the first settlers of Mauritania. In the past the Zenegas used to occupy the entire country of Mauritania as their dialect was the language spoken throughout the country. Historical events, lost wars, and hegemonic practices of overpowers have been planned to push the Zenegas out of much of their major whereabouts. Today, she still lives in the Sahara desert, but placed farther south. They currently occupy the areas between Senegal and South Mauritania.

Timbuktu was founded by the Tuareg Imashagan in the 11th century.

History records that in the 9th century AD the kingdom of Masufa and the kingdom of Lamtuna formed an alliance that made Mauritania. These founder kingdoms of Mauritania were Sanhaja-related groups.

Tilani was the main driver of this Sanhaja alliance created by Mauritania. Sanhajalese-Mauritania struggled in its early days as they fought against the other existing kingdoms of the West African region of the Moorish Empire, sometimes Bilad-al-Sudan, or Moorish Sudan. Bilad-al-Sudan meant to the Arabic-writing historians who used that term, the various kingdoms of Sudan that had a governing political network of the Moorish dynasties. This area covered by North and West Africa.

Zenega Language

The Zenega language is named after the Mauritanian branch of the Sanhajas. It is a Berber language spoken by more than 200 groups between Senegal and Mauritania. It is said that the most diverse branches represent the Berber language.

In spite of the demographic shift, the original Berber language was so rooted that Zenega was still talking about Mauritania and Senegal North until after the Zenegas lost a war against the Arabic-speaking Hassaniya dialect Maqil Arabic in the 17th century. After the Zenega language defeat was actively discouraged whereas Hassaniya was promoted.

Descendants of the Classical Arabs

Yet there are a few who still cling to the Zenega language as a symbol of cultural independence and identity. A Hassaniya saying is that “a Moor who speaks Zenega is not Zenagui (a member of the servant class).”

So true, because the Zenegas were not someone’s scapegoat. They remain one of the most important past driving forces of the history of the modern world.

The Lamtuna tribal group established Ouadagoust, one of the trade terminals of the Trans-Sahara trade route and one of the most celebrated cities of the Bilad-al-Sudan, or Moorish Sudan. They converted to Islam in the 9th century.

About 1040 AD it is said that a certain Sanhajalese Lamtuna named Yahaya ibn Ibrahim went on pilgrimage and visited many holy cities of the Moorish-Islamic world, including Mecca, Kairoun – Tunisia, Cairo and Damascus. On this journey, especially the part in Kairoun, he met a mystical revelation that he was destined to be used to rebuild the Moorish Empire. He was trained for this new role by the many mystics and seers of the many famous spiritual centers and universities in Kairoun.

He was then asked to return to West Africa to train and raise a revitalized body of conscious Moorish religion teacher / fighters who would form the striking branch of the revolution that was predicted he would lead. He returned home with a new vision and a new network of social-religious activists. One of them was called Abdallah ibn Yasin.

Abdallah ibn Yasin was steeped in revolutionary zeal and a historical sense of purpose and place. He was a mystic and socio-religious visionary who formally belonged to the Maliki school of the Sunni branch of Islam. He was known as an ascetic, strict and structured in his daily habits.

Their somewhat demanding view of life and the interpretation of Islam was widely rejected by the Lamtunas who did not hesitate to send the duo of Yahaya ibn Abdallah ibn Ibrahim and Yasin packaging to another area in the desert with their Maliki school Quran interpretations .

Shortly after their expulsion by the Lamtunas, the revolutionary duo of Yasin and Yahaya moved to an island on the upper part of the Niger River and built a training school or “Rabit” as articulated in Arabic. Yahaya ibn Abdallah ibn Ibrahim and Yasin, performed on their difficult task of reviving awareness of the Moors of his immediate environment, to a recognition of a sense of their origin and potential.

They preached a strict view of life, and promoted knowledge of history, astrology, the sciences, medicine, mysticism, as well as military and martial arts. The graduates of their school became known as Murabitum, a nuanced name that possibly means the learned Moors, or learned and holy Muslim fighters.

Nasaradin

In West Africa it is called baobab and in East Africa mbuju

Throughout Western Sudan one comes into the various cities or neighborhoods called Nasr or Nasara, ie Nasareth the land of Nasarenes. Usually those districts were at some point in history a settlement of a group of Africans who jointly practiced what would come to stand knkown as the Nasarene culture. There is a Nasreth in Ethiopia, and there is a district of Nasr in the Nassarawa (Nasarene) state of modern Nigeria. Similarly, there were various Nasar settlements in contemporary Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, and Niger. It is only in Africa that a cities and districts called Nasr finds time and weather.

The Nasarene culture is therefore an age-old Sahara Africa order that pre-rules some premeated cultures of North-East Africa including ancient Israel and Arabia. This group and its rites are well known in the books of the Bible and the Koran of such famous stories as the life and death of Samson.

The Nasarenes were persons consecrated either from birth or through personal commitment to the pursuit of universal principles of truth and justice. They usually end up as wise men, masters of natural and scientific laws, and very knowledgeable scholars of history and spirituality. They were often the last line of defense of the principles of balance and justice. Often many Nasarenes naturally wore the dreadlocks coiffure, because it was a symbol that fits their emphasis on natural spirituality, as opposed to some human ingenuity.

This particular race of the holy people were widespread in traditional Africa for the spread of Islam. Some have claimed that they are an order as old as life itself with Melchizadek the famous eternally living Priest of the book of Genesis as his founder.

Nasarene culture as such is a remnant of ancient Africa, which as a result of the vibrancy and power of its philosophical principles has been approved by all shades and colors of religion and nationalities. It is an order of spiritual masters not particularly associated with any religion or organization.

Nasarenes are a rough equivalent of a Levite-like priestly order dedicated to guarding and promoting truth and justice and keeping the balance of justice. In today’s world, the Nasarenes would be similar to many aspects of the Rastasfari philosophy and reasoning framework.

Nasarene culture was a part of the Lamtuna culture of Western Sudan. It was not surprising that many practicing Christians were counted as Stauch followers of Ibrahim and Yasin.

Among the prominent Corps and ranks of students, teachers, and martial artists who rally around and guided Ibrahim and Yasin on their changing world mission, one found Murabitums or the Marabouts, and the Nasarenes. Yasin was the ideologist of the group whereas Yahaya ibn Ibrahim became the military organizer.

Expansion

From the year 1053, the Almoravid movement of the Sanhajas began to expand its territory in the border areas between present-day Mauritania and Senegal. Their first base was the northern Senegalese city of Tekrur.

The movement primarily used teachers and healers to spread their socio-political philosophy. However, when their brittrens were threatened by the local authorities, the marabouts or the Almoravids were more than willing to confront and often more than a match for the local authorities, which had weakened the entire Moorish Empire through corruption and corruption.

The Sanhajalese Trinity – Yahaya ibn Ibrahim, Abdallah ibn Yasin and Abubakar ibn Umar:

In 1054 the Almoravid movement had taken Sijilmasa at the northern end point of the trans-Sahara trade route and in 1055 they took Aoudaghost on the south side.

Yahaya ibn Ibrahim was killed in a fight in 1056 and Abdallah ibn Yasin appointed his brother Abubakar ibn Umar as successor. Abubakar continued the glorification of the medieval empire of the Sanhajas of Senegal spear-led by the Almoravid movement.

Under Abubakar the Almoravids of Sanhaja swept through the Atlas Mountains regions of Morocco, and soon came in contact with the Berghouata branch of the Zenatas of central Morocco.

Yoruba

After a fierce battle with the local authorities, the Berghouatas ruling class was subdued but not before they had succeeded in killing Abdallah ibn Yasin, the great ideological power of the fast-growing West African-based Sanhaja Empire of the so-called Black-a- Moorish.

Yoruba

After the death of Yasin, Abubakar ibn Umar, both the ideological and the military leader of the Sanhaja Empire, were destined to become one of the greatest African Empires ever founded and often doubtfully described as simply “the Almoravid dynasty” by contemporary historians. The Sanhaja movement of the Almoravids built up a new political network where the previous one had lapsed, they built a new society, a new form of state, and a new state. They created a large empire, certainly one of the greatest geographical political hegemony established by a so-called “sub-Saharan” African cloth.

As the Sanhajas expanded their reach, the capital of the empire remained in Tekrur, a city that served as the spiritual-cultural focal point of all true Sanhajas. In 1061, Abubakar, a natural mystic and intellectual decided to return to the Tekrur and concentrated the rest of his life on a study of nature and mystics. Formally he continued to speak and send the movement and the emerging empire from within Moorish Sudan or the current so-called West Africa, but most of his active forces he transferred to others.

Abubakar ibn Tashfin

Further dissemination of the philosophy of the Marabout movement and the resulting military expeditions have been left in the hands of cousin Abubakar, one of the leaders of the Almoravids named Yusuf ibn Tashfin.

Tashfin, who was subsequently based in Morocco than the role of Vice-Roy, became the de-facto leader of the movement. He continued to pay a royal tribute of allegiance to his cousin Abubakar until the death of the latter.

Yusuf ibn Tashfin was described by Ali ibn Abd Allah in Roudh el-Kartas as “Brown in color, medium length, thin, small beard, soft voice, black eyes, straight nose, lock of Muhammad falling on top of his ear, eyebrows joined woolly hairs ”

In 1062, Yusuf ibn Tashfin founded the city of Marrakeshi (meaning of the city of Keshi / Kushi, in honor of the black African Moorish builders and owners of the city). Because of the growing power of his military prowess and material wealth, he acted with increasing independence from the rich capital in Tekrur. Although he still promised nominal fidelity to his home capital, he quickly consolidated the basis of this increasing power in his newly built capital of Marrakesh.

Yakub Al-Mansur

Largest of the Moorish rulers OF SPAIN (1149-1199)

Y akub IBN Yusuf, better known as Al-Mansur, was the most skilled and powerful of the Moorish rulers who dominated Spain for 500 years. He was also one of the most enlightened, most just and generous. His name, Al-Mansur, means “The Invincible” .This was not a boasting. He defeated all his enemies and never lost a fight.

Like almost all rulers of Morocco, he had a Negro tribe. Not only was his father Yusuf of Negro descent, but his mother was a mere Negro woman, a slave, probably taken from Timbuktu or Senegal. Ali ibn-Abd Allah, celebrated Moorish historian, wrote in 1326, says in his Roudh el Kartas (History of the rulers of Morocco), “He was the son of a negro woman, who was given to his father and he was born in the house of his grandfather, Abd el Mumen. “Mansur came to the throne when his father was killed, while contemplating Santarem, Portugal, in x I84. He swore a great oath of revenge for his father’s death, but the internal problems with the Almoravids, the dynasty that are family, the Almohads, had been driven from the throne, kept him in Africa.

Finally having defeated the Almoravids and their allies, the Arabs, he assembled an army for the invasion of Spain and Portugal and in 1189, with 10,000 of his formidable cavalry and foot people, he landed at Algeciras, Spain. Marching at Santarrm, the scene of the death of his father, he destroyed, and the continuation of Lisbon, conquered that city. Heard that the Almoravids had made use of his absence to rebel again, he returned to Africa, laden with booty and Christian prisoners, 3,000 of them were young women and children. Upon his arrival, the leader of the rebels, Yahya, fled to the Sahara desert.

The Christians of Spain, who were whites, mostly of Germanic descent, hearing the new uprising in Africa, started an all-out attack on the Moorish kingdoms in Spain. Helped by the English crusaders on their way to Palestine, they were swept through Andalusia and other nearby regions, capturing Silves, Beja, Vera, and other cities. Mansur, upon this, landed in Spain in 1191 and again defeated Christians. Chaining them fifty by fifty, he took a large number of them to be sold as slaves in Africa. Upon his return there, he was struck by a fever, and Christians, thinking the time auspicious, gathered an immense army, helped by the Crusaders, expelling the Moors from the peninsula once and for all. The three main leaders were Alphonso IX, king of lern,

“If it’s too hard for you to come to Spain,” Alphonso scorned, “Send me enough ships and I’ll come to Africa to defeat there.” Mansur sent back in a hurry, “We are coming to Spain! We are coming with a army that will teach you a lesson. We intend to hunt you from Spain, degenerated and humiliated. “Mansur sent his envoys over his vast domains, which stretched from the Atlantic Ocean along the length of Africa to the borders of Egypt , to come to the help of Islam. They came in large numbers and were of all “races” and in 1194 he sailed from Alcassar and landed in Algeciras, Spain.

Alphonso, with an army of 300,000, one of the most extensive ever assembled until that time, waited near the fort of Alarcos on the plains of Zalacca, where in 1086, 108 years earlier, an Almoravidian Negro ruler of Morocco, Yusuf ben Tachfin, had destroyed another great Christian army under Alphonso VI. (See “Yusuf I, Sultan of Africa and Conqueror of the Christianity Champions.”) Mansur marched to meet Zalacca at Alphonso and lost no time in giving him the fight.

Mansur, like Yusuf before him, resorted to the strategy. Feeling sure that Alphonso would attack his chief on that part of the Moorish army, where the royal standards are (because that was where Mansur would be), he moved a another commander, his uncle, went to that place and went to another himself. He also placed some of his men in a position to cut off the retreat of a possible Christian force coming toward the royal standards.

Alphonso did exactly what Mansur suspected. Selecting 10,000 from the elite of his knights, he gave them the honor of drawing first blood and bringing Mansur a captive. Encapsulated in their clear armor and mounted on fiery horse, set lances, they sweep down on the Moors. But Mansur men stood firm, dosing the Christian knights, paralyzing their horses, and cutting the riders to pieces. Alfonso ordered general progress, and his enormous army swept the enemy, the beat of his drums and the drums. his men and horses wanderer shake off the ground like an earthquake. But once again the Moors held their ground and fought back with incredible anger and fanaticism, shouting, “There is no god but God and Muhammad is his prophet! God alone is invincible!”

Alphonso, wounded, fled to Toledo, while the remaining nobles of his army took refuge in the fortress of Alarcos where Mansur besieged them and forced them to surrender. The number of Christians killed was immense. The estimate varies. Some historians say that 30,000, others as high as 146,000. Makkari, Arab historian, gives this final figure. As to the loot, he says some authors say 158,000 tents, 80,000 horses, 100,000 donkeys, 400,000 donkeys, 60,000 armor – “while money and jewelry were left out of consideration.” Mansur reserved. 5 percent of the loot for himself and gave the rest to his men. Going to Seville, Spain, Mansur made that his headquarters and then swept the north capturing the most important Christian strongholds of Calatravas, Guadalajara, Madrid, Salamanca and Toledo, where Alphonso and his family had resorted. Cutting off all water and supplies from Toledo, he was about to destroy the city when Alphonso’s mother, wife and children came to beg Mansur’s lines to mercy, tears in their eyes. Mansur, generous always, not only granted their request, but sent them back laden with rich gifts. As for the 24,000 Christian prisoners he had captured at Alarcos, he set them free as well. Manur stated on his deathbed, however, that this one noble deed had been one of the three mistakes of his life because the Christians had freed himself to keep his kindness in the fight against him. He was about to destroy the city when Alphonso’s mother, wife and children came to beg Mansur’s lines for mercy, tears in their eyes. Mansur, generous always, not only granted their request, but sent them back laden with rich gifts. As for the 24,000 Christian prisoners he had captured at Alarcos, he set them free as well. Manur stated on his deathbed, however, that this one noble deed had been one of the three mistakes of his life, because the Christians had freed himself to keep his kindness in the fight against him. He was about to destroy the city when Alphonso’s mother, wife and children came to beg Mansur’s lines for mercy, tears in their eyes. Mansur, generous always, not only granted their request, but sent them back laden with rich gifts. As for the 24,000 Christian prisoners he had captured at Alarcos, he set them free as well. Manur stated on his deathbed, however, that this one noble deed had been one of the three mistakes of his life because the Christians had freed himself to keep his kindness in the fight against him.

With most of Spain and Portugal in his power, he gave the Christian pleas for a ten-year ceasefire, and returning to Africa began to meditate on a project he had long in mind: the invasion of Egypt. But before he could start his plans, he died on March 20, 1199, at the age of fifty and in the fifteenth year of his reign. Mansur was not only a great organizer and a military genius, but a patron of the arts and a lover of justice. The chief virtue of a king, he would say, was justice and a king that did not occur was first ” a cloud that brings no rain.

“Coming to the throne of his first act was to distribute large amounts of food to the poor.” A rich man who does not practice charity, “he said,” is like a tree that does not bear fruit. “He also free everyone who was improperly detained in prison and reformed the laws to keep others from being held that way. He gave larger salaries and pensions to the holy men and started an extensive program of public works, rebuilding cities and building mosques, schools, hospitals, and aqueducts. He built the city of Rabat, now the capital of Morocco, Alcassar, near Sallee, Mansura and other cities. He also built the famous Kasbah of Morocco as the Giralda, one of the largest monuments of Moorish rule in Spain , at Seville.It was the impetus given by Mansur that led to such immortal examples of architecture as the mosque in Cordoba, and the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada.

Ali ibn-Abd Allah, fourteenth-century historian, says of him: “His government was remarkable for the peace, security, abundance and prosperity that prevailed everywhere …. His government was excellent, he raised the treasury; his power was exalted, his actions that of a most noble ruler, his religion was sincere and profound; and he was a great benefactor of Islam. “Biographie Universelle says he is” the most beautiful and powerful of the Islamic rulers “because the Caliphs of Baghdad. In fact, the great Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, Palestine and Syria, appealed to him for help against the crusaders, alleged whose motive was to free ‘the tomb of Christ’ from Islam. Manur was not alone the most powerful ruler in the West, that is to say of Africa,Europe and East Asia – but in its time probably in the world. His child’s gum stretched from the Atlantic Ocean along the Mediterranean Sea to the borders of Egypt and included Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, the Balearic Islands and the most of Spain and Portugal. One of the most famous statements from Mansur was, “Nothing breathes so sweetly a scent like the dead body of an enemy, and especially a traitor.” Through the great wealth he brought to Morocco and his patronage of the arts that He is often called “The Golden.” But to the common people, who adore him and repeated his words, he became known as “The Black Sultan.”Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, the Balearic Islands and most of Spain and Portugal. One of the most famous statements was Mansur, “Nothing breathes a sweet smell like the dead body of an enemy, and especially a traitor.” He brought wealth to Morocco and his patronage of the arts he often called “The Golden.” But to the common people, who adore him and repeated his words, he became known as “The Black Sultan.”Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, the Balearic Islands and most of Spain and Portugal. One of the most famous statements was Mansur, “Nothing breathes a sweet smell like the dead body of an enemy, and especially a traitor.” He brought wealth to Morocco and his patronage of the arts he often called “The Golden.” But to the common people, who adore him and repeated his words, he became known as “The Black Sultan.”But to the ordinary people, who adore him and repeated his words, he became known as “The Black Sultan.”But to the ordinary people, who adore him and repeated his words, he became known as “The Black Sultan.”

Black African Moors or The Great Senegal Empire Pt 1– by Jide Uwechia

“Zenaga / Sanhaja tribe: Berber tribe of southern Morocco, Mauritania and Senegal who gave their name to modern Senegal, their original homeland. They formed one of the sub-Saharan tribes of Berbers which, uniting under the leadership of Yusef bin Tashfin, crossed the Sahara and gave a dynasty to Morocco and Spain, namely, that of the Almoravides. The Zeirid dynasty which supplanted the Fatimites in the Maghrib built the city of Algiers was also of Zenaga origin.

Zenaga: dialect of Berber ghosts in southern Morocco and on the banks of the lower Senegal, largely by the negro population. ”

Http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/YAK_ZYM/ZENAGA_SANHAJA_SENAJER_.html

Sanhajais the name of a group of Africans who live on the Saharan fringes of the present day Senegal. They are one of the so-called black people or the sub-Saharans or the tropical Africans. Historically, they are one of the Berber tribes who constituted the main thrust of the Moorish conquest and civilization of Europe.

Reference is made to their phenotype so that it is immediately obvious that we are visiting the great history of an unambiguously so-black nation in West Africa. It will be shown here that the place known as West Africa today is indeed the old heartland of the Moorish Empire which spread on from there to Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Egypt to Spain, Italy, Palestine, as far east as India and Indonesia where Moorish descendants still identify themselves by the Moorish designation.

The Sanhaja group has many branches which are spread out between the Senegal and the Niger rivers in West Africa, and north up to the Atlas Mountains of Morocco in south and central regions. Yet without doubt, the Sanhajas were concentrated in the areas where the pseudo-intellectuals or the western media and academia describe as “sub-Saharan region” of Africa.

The Zenega branch of the Sanhajas are among the earliest settlers or Mauritania. In the past the Zenegas used to occupy the entire country of Mauritania as their dialect was the language spoken throughout the country. Historical events, lost wars, and hegemonic practices or usurpers have contrived to push the Zenegas out of a good part of their major haunts. Today, they still live in the Sahara deserts but more southerly positioned. They presently occupy the areas between Senegal and south Mauritania.

History records that in the 9th century AD the kingdom of Masufa and the kingdom of Lamtuna formed an alliance that created Mauritania. Those founder kingdoms of Mauritania were Sanhaja-related groups.

Tilani was the prime mover of this Sanhaja alliance which created Mauritania. Sanhajalese-Mauritania struggled in its early days as it competed against the other existing kingdoms of the West African region of the Moorish Empire sometimes called Bilad-al-Sudan, or Moorish Sudan. Bilad-al-Sudan meant to the Arabic-writing historians who used that term, the various Kingdoms of Sudan which had a ruling political network of the Moorish dynasties. This area covered North and West Africa.

The then Sanhajalese-Mauritania flourished for a letter 100 years before it fell apart in the 11th century. Yet from the remnant of the part of the defunct empire, another group of Sanhajas organizing what was to become one of the most fascinating Empires that came out of West Africa which history is never told anymore.

Zenega Language

The Zenega language is named after the Mauritanian branch of the Sanhajas. It is a Berber language spoken by more than 200 groups between Senegal and Mauritania. It is said to represent the most divergent branch of the Berber language.

Some argue that the present day name of Senegal derived from the name “Zenega” which is itself a derivative of the word Sanhaja, hence the title of this write-up “the Sanhajalese Empire”. The ancestors of the modern day “Senegalese” are the old “Zenegalese” or the Moorish “Sanhajalese” or famed history.

Zenega language came under its first pressure when the Fatmids dynasty, another Sanhaja group which had set up a caliphate covering Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, had wreaked a revenge on their other Sanhaja brethrens (the Zirid Dynasty who ruled as surrogates in the areas modern Tunisia and Algeria) in the Maghreb.

The Zirids had converted to a different Islamic section and consistently sought to dissociate from the Fatmid Caliphate. The Fatmid Dynasty ruler of the Caliphate sent in a major wave of Arabic speaking Bedouin refugee settlers from Arabia and Yemen to disrupt and change the demographic ratio of that region in order to cripple it politically. These newer settlers were from the Beni Hilal Arab tribes of Yemen. They were Muslims as well but they had nothing to do with the conquest of Europe.

In spite of the demographic shift, the original Berber language was so rooted that Zenega was still spoken all about Mauritania and Northern Senegal until after the Zenegas lost a war to the Arabic-Hassaniya dialect speaking Maqil Arab in the 17th century. After the defeat Zenega language was actively discouraged Hassaniya was promoted.

The new ruling elites also forbade the bearing of arms among the Zenegas. Their status was reduced from the original lords of the land to a servant class. They were encouraged to seek careers as Islamic scholars or locked into a never-ending cycle of dependency and servitude.

Presently the Zenega language is gone past its days of glory. The few speakers are either bilingual, with Hassaniya-Arabic being the main language of communication.

Yet there are few who still cling to the Zenega language as a symbol of cultural independence and identity. A Hassaniya proverb goes that “a Moor who speaks Zenega is not a Zenagui (a member of the servant class).”

So true because the Zenegas were not anybody’s whipping boy. They remain one of the most important past prime movers or the history of the modern world.

The present day Zenega-derived Sanhajas are the descendants of great legacy. Their ancestors were among the most important players in the list of founders of the so-called western civilization. In the next section we will just see why this is so true.

The Almoravids – Holy Warriors of the Moorish Sanhajalese Empire

The word Almoravids is a poor European transliteration of the African word Al-Murabitum. It describes a learned and righteous Moorish warrior.

After the decay of the Sanhajalese empire of Mauritania in the West Africa, a vacuum occurred which had to be filled. The empire had splintered to its various component parts. Tribal groupings again roamed the desert and the most powerful was the Sanhaja-related Lamtuna tribe who were the main force behind the late Sanhajalese-Mauritania Empire.

The Lamtuna tribal grouping founded Ouadagoust, one of the trade terminals of the trans-Saharan trade route and one of the most celebrated cities of the Bilad-al-Sudan, or Moorish Sudan. They converted to Islam in the 9th century.

About the year 1040 AD it is said that a certain Sanhajalese Lamtuna named Yahaya ibn Ibrahim went on pilgrimage and visited many holies cities of the Moorish-Islamic world, including Mecca, Kairoun – Tunisia, Cairo and Damascus. On this trip, especially the part in Kairoun, the encountered a mystical revelation that he was destined to be used to re-construct the Moorish Empire. He was schooled for this new role by the many mystics and visionaries of the many famous spiritual centers and universities at Kairoun.

He was then asked to return to West Africa to train and raise a revived body of conscious Moorish religious teacher / warriors who would see the striking arm of the revolution which it was prophesied that he would lead. He returned home with a new vision and a new network of socio-religious activists. One of them was called Abdallah ibn Yasin.

Abdallah ibn Yasin was infused full with revolutionary zeal and a historical sense of purpose and place. He was a mystic and socio-religious visionary who formally belonged to the Maliki school of the Sunni branch of Islam. He was known to be ascetic, strict and structured in his daily habits.

Their somewhat demanding view of life and interpretation of Islam was rejected widely by the Lamtunas who did not hesitate to send the duo of Yahaya ibn Ibrahim and Abdallah ibn Yasin packing to some other area out in the desert with their Maliki-School Koranic interpretations.

Shortly after their expulsion by the Lamtunas, the revolutionary duo of Yasin and Yahaya moved to an Island on the upper section of the River Niger and a training school or “Rabit” as expressed in Arabic. Yahaya ibn Ibrahim and Abdallah ibn Yasin, carried on their difficult task of reviving the awareness of the Moors or his immediate vicinity, to a recognition of a sense of their origin and potentiality.

They preached a strict view of life, and promoted the knowledge of history, astrology, the sciences, medicine, mysticism, as well as military and martial arts. The graduates of their school were known as Murabitum, a nuanced name which possibly meant the learned Moorish, or learned and holy Muslim warriors.

Nasaradin

All about Western Sudan one comes across different cities or districts named Nasr or Nasara, ie Nasareth the country of Nasarenes. Usually those districts had a history at settlement of a group of Africans who collectively practiced what has come to be as the Nasarene culture. There is a Nasreth in Ethiopia, and there is a district of Nasr in the Nassarawa (Nasarene) State of modern Nigeria. Similarly there were various Nasar settlements in modern day Mali, Mauretania, Senegal, and Niger. It is only in Africa that one finds towns and districts named Nasr time and again.

The Nasarene culture is thus an age old Saharan African order which precepts some cultures of the North East Africa including ancient Israel and Arabia. This group and its rites are well known in the books of the Bible and Koran from such famous tales as the life and death of Samson.

The Nasarenes were persons dedicated either from birth or by personal commitment to the pursuit of universal principles of truths and justice. They usually end up as wise men, master of natural and scientific laws, and very knowledgeable scholars of history and spirituality. They were often the last line of defense for the principles of balance and righteousness. Often many Nasarenes the dreadlocks natural hair coiffure, as it was a symbol that fit their emphasis on natural spirituality as opposed to some human contrivance.

These were special wide or holy people widespread in traditional Africa before the spread of Islam. Some have claimed it is an order as old as life itself with Melchizadek the famous ever-living Priest of the book of Genesis as its founder.

Nasarene culture as such is a relic of ancient Africa which is due to the vibrancy and strength of its philosophical principles has been adopted by all shades and colors of religion and nationalities. It is an order of spiritual masters not particularly affiliated with any religion or organization.

Nasarenes are a rough equivalent of a Levite-like priestly order dedicated to guarding and promoting truth and righteousness and keeping the balance of justice. In today’s world, the Nasarenes would be similar to many aspects of the Rastasfari philosophy and reasoning framework.

Nasarene culture was a part of the Lamtuna culture or Western Sudan. It was not surprising that many practicing Nazarenes were counted as stauch supporters or Ibrahim and Yasin.

Among the prominent corps and ranks of the students, teachers and martial artists who rallied round and accompanied Ibrahim and Yasin on their world changing mission, one found Murabitums or the Marabouts, and the Nasarenes. Yasin was the ideologue of the group whereas Yahaya ibn Ibrahim became the military organizer.

Expansion

From the year 1053, the Almoravid movement of the Sanhajas ground to expand from its territory to the border areas between present day Mauritania and Senegal. Their first base was the Northern Senegalese town of Tekrur.

The movement mainly used teachers and healers to spread their socio-political philosophy. However whenever their brethrens were threatened by local authorities, the marabouts or the Almoravids were more than willing to confront and often more than a match for the local authorities who had been weakened throughout the Moorish Empire by venality and corruption.

The Sanhajalese Trinity – Yahaya ibn Ibrahim, Abdallah ibn Yasin and Abubakar ibn Umar:

In 1054 the Almoravid movement had Sijilmasa at the northern terminus of the Trans-Saharan trade route, and in 1055 they took Aoudaghost at the southern end.

Yahaya ibn Ibrahim was killed in a battle in 1056 and Abdallah ibn Yasin appointed his brother Abubakar ibn Umar as the successor. Abubakar continued the aggrandisement of the medieval empire of the Sanhajas of Senegal spear-headed by the Almoravid movement.

Under Abubakar the Almoravids of Sanhaja swept through the Atlas Mountain regions of Morocco, and soon came into contact with the Berghouata branch of the Zenatas of central Morocco.

After a fierce fight with the local authorities, the Berghouatas ruling class was subjugated but not before they had succeeded in killing Abdallah ibn Yasin the major ideological force of the rapidly expanding West African-based Sanhaja Empire or the so-called Black-a-Moors.

Following the death of Yasin, Abubakar and Umar became both the ideological as well as the military leader of the Sanhaja Empire, destined to become one of the greatest African Empires ever established and often dubiously described as just “the Almoravid dynasty” by contemporary historians. The Sanhaja movement of the Almoravids built up a new political network where the previous ones had decayed, they built up a new society, a new polity, and a new state. They created a great empire, certainly one of the largest geographical political hegemony established by a so-called “sub-Saharan” African-based state.

As the Sanhajas expanded their reach, the capital of the empire remained in Tekrur, a city which served as the spiritual-cultural focal point of all true Sanhajas. In 1061, Abubakar, a natural mystic and intellectual decided to return to the Tekrur and focus the rest of his life on a study of nature and mystics. Formally, continued to rule and directly the movement and emerging empire from within Moorish Sudan or today’s so-called West Africa but most of his active powers transferred to others.

Abubakar ibn Tashfin

Further spread of the philosophy of the Marabout movement and resulting military expeditions or were left in the hands of Abubakar’s cousin, one of the leading lights of the Almoravid named Yusuf ibn Tashfin.

Tashfin, who was then based in Morocco, then assumed the role of Vice-Roy, became the de-facto leader of the movement. Abubakar continued to pay a royal tribute or allegiance to his cousin until the death of the latter.

Yusuf ibn Tashfin was described by Ali ibn Abd allah in Roudh el-Kartas as “Brown in color, middle height, thin, little beard, soft voice, black eyes, straight nose, lock of Muhammad falling on top of his ear, eye brow joined wooly hair ”

In 1062, Yusuf ibn Tashfin founded the city of Marrakeshi (meaning the city of Keshi / Kushi, in honor of the black Moorish African builders and owners of the city). Due to the growing sway of his military prowess and material wealth, he acted with increasing independence from the empire capital in Tekrur. Although he is still pledged nominal allegiance to his home capital, he quickly consolidated the base of this increasing power in his newly built capital city of Marrakesh.

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